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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  September 3, 2014 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> woodruff: russian president putin proposed a peace plan after talking with ukraine's leader to end the bloodshed that's gripped the embattled country. good evening, i'm judy woodruff. gwen ifill is away. also ahead this wednesday, president obama vows to destroy the islamic state group. we explore how the u.s. can handle multiple crises abroad. plus, transforming how students learn to read by getting them out of their seats and requiring them to use all their senses. >> first, total change. teachers helped me a lot. they understood how i learned.
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a very hands-on. >> woodruff: those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> charles schwab, proud supporter of the "pbs newshour."
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>> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: confirmation came today that a second american journalist has indeed been murdered by islamic state militants in syria. a video posted yesterday showed the beheading of steven sotloff. >> overnight, our government determined that tragically steven was taken from us in a horrific act of violence. >> woodruff: from president obama on down, american leaders voiced outrage today. the president spoke in estonia, insisting the killers will not
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cow the united states. >> they have failed because, like people around the world, americans are repulsed by their barbarism. we will not be intimidated their horrific acts only unite us as a country and stiffen our resolve to take the fight against these terrorists. >> woodruff: steven sotloff was a freelancer who had worked for "time" and "foreign policy" magazines. he vanished last year in syria and had not been seen since. then, two weeks ago, he appeared briefly in the video of james foley's beheading also at the hands of a hooded jihadist who speaks with a british accent. british foreign secretary philip hammond. >> our preliminary analysis is that this video is genuine, that it is mr. sotloff, and that it appears to be the same person with an apparently british voice that appeared in the last video. >> woodruff: hammond said london
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is considering every possible option to protect a british hostage who was threatened in yesterday's video. and in portsmouth, new hampshire, today, vice president joe biden vowed to pursue the killers to the gates of hell. meanwhile, the israeli government confirmed sotloff was also an israeli citizen. and a former islamic state captive who'd befriended sotloff told an israeli newspaper that the journalist managed to hide his judaism from the militants. filmmaker matthew van dyke knew both sotloff and foley. he says they considered it vital to tell the story of syria's civil war despite the obvious danger. they were both journalists that were careful. they took precautions and unfortunately even if you do everything right, sometimes in syria things go wrong. >> woodruff: the state department has said a few americans are still being held by islamic state fighters in
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syria, including a 26-year-old woman who'd been doing aid work. the sotloff family issued a statement through a spokesman outside their home in pine crest, florida. >> steve often said his job was to hold people's hands, to build rapport before delving into the story. he never rushed or was pressured. he was appreciated by all who met him for sincerity and kindness. steve had a gentle soul this world will be without. >> woodruff: >> woodruff: we'll have an extended discussion on what to do about the islamic state, later in the program. the world health organization reported pood the overall toll of the ebola outbreak is more than 9,100. american nancy writebol contracted abelia in liberia but recovered in atlanta after receiving an experimental drug. she appeared today at her
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missionary group's headquarters near charlotte, north carolina and reflected on her ordeal. >> there were some very, very dark days, and those dark days are not just what i experience. i know it's what our brothers and sisters who have ebola in isolation units experience. i watched as people were by themselves not able to have a family member near them, not able to feel the touch of another person near them because they're isolated. the question is usually asked what do you think saved you? was it the zmapp drug? was it the supportive care? was it the liberian and u.s. medical people? was it those doctors and nurses that helped to save you? or was it your faith?
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and my answer to that question is all of the above. >> woodruff: in another development, u.n. officials warned that a nigerian doctor may have spread ebola to dozens of people after he became infected. at one point, friends from his church laid hands on him as part of a healing se ceremony. in pakistan, anti-government protest leaders opened new negotiations with opposition lawmakers in a bid to end weeks of unrest. thousands of demonstrators had marched on the capital islamabad. they demanded that prime minister nawaz sharif be removed for alleged vote fraud in last year's elections. violent clashes over the weekend left three protesters dead and more than 500 injured. since then, the crowds have thinned. the longest-serving man on north carolina's death row walked out of prison today, after a judge overturned his conviction. henry mccollum and his half brother, leon brown, were found
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guilty of raping and murdering a young girl in 1983. but d.n.a. tests now suggest another man may have committed the crime. today, mccollum, now 50-years- old, hugged his parents outside the gates of central prison in raleigh. >> it's wonderful, i'm not, i just thank god, i just thank god that i'm out of this place. >> is there any anger in your heart right now? >> oh, no, no, ain't no anger in my heart. i forgive those people and stuff, right, but you know, i don't like what they've done to me and my brother, because they took 30 years away from me for no reason. >> woodruff: mccollum's younger brother, leon brown, was also released today. he'd been serving a life sentence for the crimes. a michigan man was sentenced to at least 17 years in prison today for killing an unarmed woman on his porch. theodore wafer was convicted of second-degree murder last month. he testified he awoke november second, to hear renisha mcbride, pounding on his door before
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dawn. she'd been drinking heavily and crashed her car. wafer claimed self-defense, but prosecutors argued the shooting was unjustified, regardless. in economic news, thousands of laid off casino workers have begun filing for unemployment benefits in atlantic city, new jersey. at least 300 lined up by the time the doors opened today. the mass filing will run for three days. four of atlantic city's 12 casinos have closed this year including two over the weekend that left 5,000 people out of work. august was a better than expected month for auto sales in the u.s. largely due to increased demand for trucks and crossover suv's. chrysler had its best august in 12 years, and along with nissan, posted a double-digit gain. ford's rose a fraction of a percent. but general motors sales were off more than one percent.
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on wall street today, the dow jones industrial average gained almost 11 points to close at 17,078; the nasdaq fell almost 26 points to close at 4,572; and the s&p 500 slipped one point to finish at 2,000. still to come on the newshour. prospects for peace, but challenges for europe in ukraine. how can the u.s. handle multiple crises abroad? transforming the way to teach kids how to read. a look at anonymous the online collective that inspires digital vigilantes. and, how the immigration crisis spreads far beyond the mexico border. >> woodruff: president obama had tough words for russian president vladimir putin today as he and other world leaders prepared for tomorrow's nato summit. chief foreign affairs correspondent margaret warner reports.
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>> reporter: as fighting between government troops and rebels raged in eastern ukraine, president obama arrived in the baltic state of estonia and minced no words. >> it was not the government in kyiv that destabilized eastern ukraine, it's been the pro- russian separatists who are encouraged by russia, financed by russia, trained by russia, supplied by russia and armed by russia. the president told a packed concert hall in tallinn that the u.s. will never accept russia's seizure of crimea or any other part of ukraine. he also pledged full support for america's nato allies in the face of criticism at home that he's too cautious in confronting moscow. >> we'll be here for estonia. we will be here for latvia. we will be here for lithuania. you lost your independence once before. with nato, you will never lose it again. >> reporter: mr. obama's one-day visit to estonia came amid reports of a possible cease-fire agreement in ukraine. ukraine's president petro poroshenko initially put out a
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statement saying he'd agreed on a truce with russian president vladimir putin. but moscow denied that, saying it wasn't a party to the conflict. later, a revised statement from kiev spoke only of steps that could lead to a cease-fire. but the pro-russian separatists rejected it. putin, speaking later on a visit to mongolia laid out his own seven-point peace plan. it made no mention of withdrawing any russian troops from ukraine. the kremlin still denies any are there. poroshenko today made a more general appeal. >> ( translated ): listen, how can anyone be against peace? how can anyone reject the fact that people must stop dying? how can we stop these awful events today? it's just barbarism when hostages are being shot dead, when schools full of civilians are being destroyed. >> reporter: the burgeoning crisis, and the relationship with russia, will take center stage at the nato summit that starts in wales tomorrow. on monday, nato secretary general anders fogh rasmussen called it a crucial summit in the organization's history.
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one option on the table, creating a so-called rapid response force in eastern europe. of several thousand nato troops ready to move on short notice. at a news conference with estonia's president today, president obama urged all nato countries to pull their weight. >> estonia contributes its full share, its full 2% of g.d.p. to the defense of our alliance. estonia is an example of how every nato member needs to do its fair share for our collective defense. >> reporter: as it nervously watches events in ukraine, the estonian government said this week it wants more. it wants permanent nato bases on its own territory. in addition, ukraine is now saying it wants to join the alliance. meanwhile, the pentagon announced today that 200 u.s. soldiers will take part in an exercise in western ukraine next week.
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and france said it's halting the delivery of a warship to russia. but the tense situation in eastern europe won't be the only topic on the agenda at the nato summit. officials are also set to discuss strategies for combating the islamic state group in iraq and syria. as well as the way forward for the alliance in afghanistan. due to the bitter, contested presidential election there, the country has no set leader yet so the afghan government has yet to sign an agreement to keep any u.s. or nato troops in the country after the end of this year. i spoke with margaret earlier. so, margaret, thank you. you have been reporting on this all day. how are the u.s. and its allies reacting to these reports of a cease fire between putin and poroshenko? >> judy, the president said something earlier this morning about pursuing or keeping an eye on, but u.s. officials and other western diplomats say this is just part of the putin parton which is every time an e.u.
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summit is coming up and they're about to level sanctions, he makes a gesture to withdraw forces but doesn't live up to it. u.s. officials are very wary of this and noted with some pleasure that, in fact, france, far from being swayed by this, actually delayed the delivery of the warship that they insisted on delivering before. so i think that the one hopeful sign this week, perhaps, is that the russian separatists, quote-unquote, which, of course, the ukrainians insist is just a front for russia did say this week they might settle for autonomy within ukraine rather than full independence. and there are follow-on talks in belarus friday between ukraine and the separatists. but let's say everything freezes in place to have the outline or the agreement then that rewards russian aggression because it tells ukrainian troops to pull
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back and doesn't mention the russian troops and means there will be a slice of eastern ukraine that will be essentially a no-man's land. >> woodruff: how are they, then, defining success at this n.a.t.o. summit? >> on ukraine, judy, it is to affirm, if they can get it, a commitment in general to the sovereignty of ukraine but not the kind of security they're ready to extend to their own n.a.t.o. members, and they're very clear about that. in other words, it's to make sheer to putin as one u.s. official said to me that there are real consequences in continuing this and one of those is we have and will continue to beef up our commitment to n.a.t.o. members who are in the same neighborhood which include the bal baltics. they're going to recruit infrastructure far in the east without violating the agreement they made in the '70s about
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the n.a.t.o.-russia pact which is n.a.t.o. wouldn't have permanent bases in the east. >> woodruff: you were telling me you have been talking to people on the ground in ukraine. what are you learning there? >> i had a heart-wrenching conversation with someone from donetsk in the governor's office and they were in the camp to mar mari yople. he said it's cat and mouse and anytime they want to come in, they can. they say, they have russian tanks. he said, we don't have the weapons to go up against them. sounds like the government forces in iraq and the kurds trying to go up against i.s.i.s. so he just said, you know there, hundreds of bodies strewn out in this no-man's land between mariupol and the russian troops
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and concern that putin is trying to create a land bridge to crimea because crimea is gasping without support. mar yuple is wide in the path. >> woodruff: two other huge issues for the n.a.t.o. conference, one is i.s.i.s., and do they have a goal for what they hope to accomplish in that? >> i think a lot less consensus there than what to do about ukraine and russia, which has gotten fairly well developed. on what to do about islamic state, certainly the u.s. and europe are allied in the sense that because of all the foreign fighters there from europe in particular but also the u.s., they recognize the vulnerability. but beyond that, secretary kerry talked about putting together this alliance of like-minded countries that would all participate in any sort of military or any other action and that would be in the only n.a.t.o. members but other members from the region. that will take some time. and then, of course, there's the
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whole question of, you know, does the iraq government actually form a consensus government? but there is a lot less consensus yet on what to do not only about islamic state in both syria and iraq but also what to do more broadly about the disintegration really of the middle east and north africa as we've known it for so many decades. >> woodruff: i can't let you go without asking about afghanistan. >> the original point of this. >> woodruff: the central point of this meeting. what are they thinking now that the election is -- >> yeah, the end of the setup piece, judy. i asked a sunni u.s. official about this and said is there any wavering commitment of the n.a.t.o. allies to agree to stay on past september 14, the deadline when authority expires? he said, not yet, but at this summit they will sit down and act as if the election is settled. they will still put all the plans in place. okay, you, germany, you will
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take care of here and how many forces will that take and so on and so forth. so they're going to go ahead and plan. but he said, if anybody gets home -- i mean, the new president of afghanistan was supposed to come to the meeting. he's not coming, the defense minister is coming because there is no president. he said after a week after the meeting if it isn't settled you will have a hard time because countries have to make a decision. you don't leave in a day. >> woodruff: thank you very much. >> woodruff: as we just heard, there are a number of crises around the world which have dominated the world's attention. tonight, we'll explore how the obama administration is responding to the challenges and what else, if anything, should be done. joining me now is vali nasr. a senior state department official during president obama's first term. he's now dean at the johns hopkins school of advanced international studies
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eric edelman is a former senior state and pentagon official who was also on vice president cheney's staff and ambassador to turkey. he's now at the center for strategic and budgetary assessments. and david ignatius is a foreign affairs columnist at the "washington post." and we welcome all three of you back to the "newshour". so what we just heard from margaret, whether the russians moving in ukraine or i.s.i.s. moving in syria and iraq or just until recently the middle east, israel and hamas, the world seems to be lurching from one crisis to the other. ambassador edleman, what is the united states going eat to prevent the crises or address them once they're happening? >> some of the crises in iraq or syria potentially could have been avoided earlier, but we are where we are now. my own view is we need a strategy for dealing with the problem of i.s.i.l. and it needs to be a strategy that covers both iraq and syria. i think on iraq, right now we've
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had effect with airstrikes, with working with kurdish peshmerga, with some of the iraqi security forces largely shiite but mostly in border areas along the kurdistan regional government border and in baghdad, i think we're going to need a broader effort, a broader advisory presence. it takes an army to defeat an army. doesn't need to be our army but we're going to have to have an advisory presence with the iraqi security forces and the peshmerga to help them execute this and it does mean they will have casualty because folks will be within proximity of combat. >> and a number of different steps taken in different places. how do you come at this, vali nasr? >> well, i think they're doing what they can in ukraine and iraq to address immediate issues either i.s.i.s. or russia is creating. but now in both of these places we're dealing with larger forces that have been unleashed that are not going to be resolved by a single sanction or a single
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air strike. we're seeing a change in the map of iraq and syria, territory is ungoverned in eastern ukraine and a collapse of state authority. it requires broader strategy beyond airstrikes and the challenging of putin as to where we're going to go and we won't get there unless the administration and u.s. foreign policy makes a commitment to presence there. we have to convince other actors in the region that we are in it for the long haul. we understand that this is not a one month, one week problem and that we have a game plan and this is our game plan for actually what happens after i.s.i.s., what happens after you bombed them out of a certain stronghold, how do we actually restore a certain order to both ukraine and to iraq and syria. >> woodruff: do these sounds like the kinds of recipes the u.s. should be pursuing? >> well, i think the heart of
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good policy is to work with partners who share u.s. interests to try to combat these really difficult problems. that's obviously what president obama is trying to do. he's meeting with his n.a.t.o. allies to talk about the common responses to russia and ukraine, as margaret's report said, he's working to build a partnership in the middle east that can combat i.s.i.s. there's been a lot of work behind the scenes are saudi arabia, with the united arab emirates, with jordan to begin to pull together the kind of advisory forces that could rule, i suspect. the problem, i think, judy, is these group efforts require a strong american center. you can pull countries together behind a policy if it's well communicated by an american president, and president obama, i think by the account of even many people in the administration, has not done that until recently. he's beginning to speak more
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clearly, but it's late in the game. >> woodruff: what is it you're saying he hasn't done specifically? what is it, persuasion? >> he has a country that really is war weary and he's tried to respond to and reflect that. let's remember, he got reelected as the president who will end this dekid of war and turn a page in history and all of a sudden he's conn front by these huge problems. i think in a case of iraq and syria, you really can't fault the administration for not having put together a coherent policy, stayed with nouri al-maliki way too long. many people were saying this was a mistake. they didn't come up with a way to beef up the modern operation in syria so it could stop i.s.i.s. and here we are. >> woodruff: and ambassador edleman, some people were saying in retrospect, at the time, it
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wasn't clear who and how the u.s. could have been involved in syria. >> well, i think some of us were saying at the time that we needed to have a more engaged policy in syria. the only way you can shape an event and to find out exactly who the actors are on the ground and who you can count observe and can't is -- count on and can't is by having the presence and be involved and we decided not to do that for good and sufficient reasons, i suppose, but it left us with fewer options down the road than we could have had otherwise. >> woodruff: given what david ignatius is saying, vali nasr, you're all talking about in one way or another coalitions, building a group of actors. sounds like that's what the administration is doing and, yet, is it that it's not happening fast enough, that it's happening too late? >> some of it is happening too late. i think david is correct. but, you know, the administration's working against the background of several years of communicating to this region that we ought to get into asia,
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we're shrinking the footprint and we're not really committed to the region and the region has to figure out the conflict on its own, so it didn't matter whether maliki buz was governing right or not. now we have a difficult job of convincing the region that we have reset. i don't think anybody believes american policy has been reset so basically we're just doing the minimum amount that is required to address the beheading or current foreign action but -- >> woodruff: are you saying when people sit across the presiden --across the table froe president that people don't take him at his word? >> looking at the crises unfolding, they're not president obama's fault, but you can see people are skeptical he will use the american power decisively.
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so i think in that point president obama has a credibility problem. i think he's wise not to act impulsively, but when people doubt your intention to take action, you're tempted to take rash actions. he hasn't done that, he's cautious. but there is a need to reestablish america is a guiding and decisive force in the world and the president will have to work with that the rest of his time in office. >> woodruff: do you think this president, this administration, ambassador edleman, is capable of doing that? >> i agree what david said and i think there is one important element here we haven't addressed. in order for that kind of leadership david is talking about to work, foreign leaders have to have a concept the president has a theory of the case, he has understanding of how the regions tie together and how the actions of one impact the other. i think the administration, unfortunately, has tried, as vali nasr was saying, to look at the one-office. we'll deal with the problem of ukraine, have sanctions on
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russia today. we'll have airstrikes to deal with i.s.i.l., and deal with the east asia and south china sea. these are all connected and the president has not in my view articulated a coherent case for how they're connected, how u.s. interests are connected in all these regions and how we have to act to further them. >> woodruff: coming up with a world view, vali nasr, is that what we're talking about here? >> i think coming up with a world view, articulating america's interest in these conflicts, understanding what are the interests of other countries in these conflicts, and also i think communicating that we're not reluctant to events on the ground. you have to assert what does america see in its global leadership and what is essential. i think people are looking for the president, try to articulate this to the american public. if you're not actually trying to change the mindset of the american public, you can see it's not going to translate into effective foreign policy. >> that's my question, david
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ignatius, how much does the president have to keep in mind the reluctance of the american people to get deeply engaged militarily in yet another part of the world? >> has to keep in mind effective leadership is leading the public. the president said today that the united states will degrade and destroy the i.s.i.s. extremists who have beheaded two americans in the most horrifying way imaginable. he has to deliver on that now and bring the country with him, including a congress that's very reluctant before the election to get involved in the mother war in iraq. he has to deliver on his promise that russian president putin will pay a price in ukraine. he has to make sure that he means that. so that's what he has to deliver now. >> woodruff: quickly, do you think these terrible images we have been seeing make that any easier? >> well, i think the public is going to be more willing to say it's worth committing american power to fight people who do things like this, yes.
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>> lots of big questions that go on and on. we thank you all for being with us, david ignatius, ambassador edleman, vali nasr. thank you. >> woodruff: next, we look at a unique reading program that has had remarkable results in one florida community. special correspondent john tulenko of learning matters reports from vero beach. >> reporter: this is a story about parents making a difference, how a mother's experience united an entire community and transformed the way children learn in school. it starts ten years ago here in vero beach, florida, when mason was in third grade and hadn't learned to read. >> looking at a book, i always used to pretend i could read it, walking into a classroom, i knew that i probably eventually would be called on.
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i was really nervous and scared. i just felt totally lost. >> reporter: he tried to keep his dyslexia hidden but on the inside mains was coming apart. >> he became very anxious, very depressed. you're desperate as a parent when you're in that situation and you're afraid. i mean, it is pure fear. my job was to help him, and i had no idea how to help him. >> help would come, but it wouldn't be easy. as it happened, he heard about a school called odyssey that promised to reach students with dyslexia through their physical senses. it didn't matter it was in baltimore. she moved the family. >> it was great. first year, total change. the teachers helped him a lot. they understood how i learned or how i needed to be taught. very hands on, very kinesthetic. it changed my life for the better and i thank god every day for that. >> it was a long haul. >> reporter: his mother was
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grateful, too, but knew there were many other families struggling just as they had with no help in sight. >> why are we keeping them locked up in these schools that have had to learn how to reach the hardest to teach? they've had to develop methods in these programs, they've had to invest in their teachers in training them. why are we keeping it there? >> reporter: to the learn the techniques, she earned a masters in learning disabilities and returned to vero beach and met barbara hammond, a management consultant whose son at the time was struggling in kindergarten. >> the teacher said he's not paying attention and doing what i ask. when i try to explore what she meant by that, she couldn't answer it. when i would talk to liz about it, liz actually could start pulling it apart. liz was there talking to me and we sort of looked at each other and said we need to start something. no mom should have to leave. we want to bring affordable tutoring to kids who are struggling. >> in vero beach where 13
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elementary schools serve a diverse population, they had in mind helping the roughly 10% of students diagnosed with a learning disability. and to pay for tutoring, they approached a local philanthropist with a keen interest in education. the former president of a.o.l. do you remember when we first came to you? >> yes, i do. i remember it very well because it's cost me a lot of money. (laughter) >> reporter: but at the start, oglethorpe pushed the mothers to think bigger. that was in 2009, when a national test showed two-thirds of fourth graders in florida and elsewhere were reading below grade level. >> people couldn't believe the statistics, thought we were making it up. the sad part is if you can't read by the end of the third grade, you only have one in a seven chance of catching up. that's a lot of kids falling through the cracks and we have to turn the situation around. >> that knocked us over and we said, wait a minute, this is much bigger than what we thought and we have to figure out how to solve this problem.
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>> reporter: instead of tuttedderring the small number of students furthest behind, they set out to transform reading instruction for all children in vero beach. >> we're going to write it in the air. >> getting kids out of their seats and using all their senses, especially touch and movement to teach reading. the same approach that had been the breakthrough for mrs. woody's son mason. >> we had shaving cream, you would put it on the table, mix it around and you had to write a word out. you felt it, visualized it. that helped me a lot. >> it's after better connections in the brain by teaching in a multi-sensory, direct way. >> reporter: we met kim smith at highlands elementary in vero beach. >> elbows up, ready, tap, dash! (sounding out "dash") >> fingers are tapping each
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individual sound. you have the most nerve endings in your fingertips besides your lips. we use our fingers. tap them together first, say them, then say or make the word on their board. >> reporter: wendy. and it's much easier for me to teach than to pinpoint who is getting it and who isn't. ready? >> reporter: you said you have been teaching 14 years. surely you knew some of this stuff. >> i did, but not in this way. everything that we're doing now was really brand new to me. the sounds, the bonus letters, the diagrams. >> reporter: how did you get through 14 years of teaching? most elementary teachers take only a few basic courses in reading instruction. barbara hammond. >> our universities aren't preparing them. the teachers don't know unless they're special ed and have been very specially trained why a child is not successful in front of them and why it's breaking
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down. >> reporter: so you're saying we have a teaching reading problem, not a reading problem. >> yes, the real question is what is the gap in knowledge? what do the teachers need to know and what do they actually know and how do we fill that gap? >> on the left-hand side -- >> reporter: the answer, starting four years ago, ms. woody began offering teachers free comprehensive workshops on techniques to reach struggling readers including the multisensory approach. >> understand what the child struggles with. >> reporter: today 56 elementary student teachers have completed the months-long training. kim smith on the left uses master reading coaches to go back to the schools to share what they've learned with hundreds more, and responding to teachers, liz's training now includes strategies to help children cope when learning to read becomes frustrating. >> what we brought was a program that first teaches the teachers to control their emotions, but
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then bring that understanding to the children themselves. >> reporter: and none of this training has been mandatory. that'>> the key thing, the teac, master coaches, the school district, the principals are all volunteering for this stuff. if this stuff didn't work, they wouldn't be doing it. >> reporter: the results show reading scores have improved by 10%, and to keep up momentum, the district recently adopted a goal, that by 2018, 90% of third graders will be reading above the national average. they call it the moonshot moment and new donors and supporters are approaching the goal from different angles. >> it's up to 41, 50-some community partners, focusing, getting red request for kindergarten. other partners focusing on absenteeism, other partners working on reading blocks, physician, pediatricians getting the kids healthy. it's wonderful to see the community rallying around the
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one single issue called the moonshot moment. s>> reporter: what started as one mother's search for a solution for her son united a town and may turn around an entire school system. >> woodruff: it seems that a week doesn't go by without a significant story about hacking or cyber attacks of some kind. just this week, there have been new concerns over the posting of celebrity photos and a potential credit card breach at home depot. one online community known as anonymous often captures some of the biggest headlines for their hacks. earlier this week, hari sreenivasan recorded a conversation in our new york studios about its origins. >> sreenivasan: hackers who sell information under the collective name anonymous have been involved in cyber attraction on corporations to intelligence agencies to local
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governments even the "newshour" web site. we take a close look at anonymous how they incited online vigilantism. ahman now has a slogan, says we are legion. who are anonymous or how are they organized? >> anonymous is an international collection of hackers, protesters and geeks. fundamentally it's sort of a hard thing to wrap one's mind around because you think of organizations as being groups and groups who have leaders and they have committees and meetings, but, you know, anonymous is sometimes referred to as a hive, a swarm. it is somewhat chaotic. there are no real leaders. there are people who organize different actions at different points in time, but essentially, you know, what they've evolved over the past, you know, ten years or so from an organization
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that was mainly looking for what are called lulls, for kind of laughs on the internet to a really strong force for social change and protest. >> sreenivasan: you document a lot of these denial of service attacks. >> right. >> sreenivasan: how significant are they? what can they do to a company or government? >> there are a lot of concern about the denial of service attacks. what that basically means is when you hear about web sites that are taken down, this is often the method that's used. the way it works is a web site is essentially swamped with so many requests that it can't handle it, so it will crash. one side you have the protesters, such as those in anonymous, and they say, you know, for us this is a form of protest, this is like blocking the entrance to a restaurant or a bank or something like that. >> sreenivasan: kind of a civil rights thing. >> that's the way they'll frame it. on the other hand you will have the businesses or the
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governments who have been subjected to the attacks and you have businesses like paypal who was attacked and the image is $5 million or something like this. the city governments and the person i read about, commander x, one of his actions was against the city of santa cruz and he took down the web site for about 20 minutes. so, you know, you will have governments say this is disrupting the service, their ability to get information out, businesses are claiming loss of revenues, so there's these two sides to it. >> sreenivasan: there is kind of an interesting distinction. how skilled are these people? on the one hand you point out not all are gifted hackers. on the other hand, homeland security, f.b.i. are very concerned about the threat and say they could take down a very important infrastructure. >> you're right. one of the parts to have the server i'm reporting on is a few
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years ago there were briefings on capitol hill about this idea about this threat of anonymous. keith alexander at the time was saying or suggesting anonymous at the time had the capability to attack power grids. some people say that was essentially beating the drum for some legislation at the time, but, you know, to think about anonymous, again, thinking about them as this hive, within the hive are extremely gifted hackers, very sophisticated hackers that can do a great deal and cause a lot of damage. but after reporting on this for a year or so, collective wisdom is maybe 20% of the people who identify as anonymous are actually hackers and the other 80% or so are just protesters, you know like i said, geeks, disenfranchised. it's become a catch-all for all of that. >> you also got an interesting phrase in your story, you've called some of their actions
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influential but irresponsible and the stephenville, ohio, rape case where the high school teenager was raped, they figured out a way to get a cell phone video out to the public but, at the same time, released an unredacted court document which outed the victim's name as well. >> right. in that case and in others, most recently ferguson, to a great deal, you know, the way -- their approach is they come back with a clearinghouse of information and they're trying to get it out there very quickly. they're not taking the time to verify everything. it's kind of a wikileaks model in a way where they're going out and saying, look, here's all this information coming in, here are videos and testimonials, you all make sense of it -- meaning the general public, the media, or whomever -- and sometimes in that kind of fire hose blast of data and media, there will be
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impactful things such as the video and then things that aren't and there will be things that are problematic such as in ferguson when, you know, there was a rush to identify the -- who is the officer who shot michael brown, and anonymous or someone representing anonymous released the wrong name, and i spoke with the person who was named and he basically feels like his reputation has been just ruined forever. >> sreenivasan: he stayed in his home for a week. >> he was under police watch for a week in his home. he describes himself as a quiet, hard working civil servant who has the attention of hackers and the people of the world and ferguson who wanted a name. there were people within anonymous who did come out and apologize for this, but, you know, there is an element of chaos to all of this. >> sreenivasan: the article about anonymous i is in this
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week's "new yorker." thank you for coming. >> thank you for having me. >> woodruff: one footnote-- since hari recorded that conversation, it's been found that some of the celebrity photos of jennifer lawrence and others were posted on an online bulletin board affiliated with anonymous. but it's not clear whether anonymous had a role in the hacking itself. >> woodruff: as word surfaces that president obama is delaying a decision on whether to take executive action on immigration, a new poll finds the public's priorities on the issue have shifted. a pew research center survey released today showed a spike in favor of making border security the priority. and a drop in support for creating a way for undocumented immigrants to become citizens, or making both matters an equal priority. the divide among the public is one reflected in our occasional series of one-on-one interviews about how to handle the border crisis. jeff is back with our latest
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conversation. >> brown: in our series, we've talked about the influx of unaccompanied minors with border patrol guards, immigration lawyers, ranchers and others, some living and working at the border and others as far as 2,000 miles away, in this case bristol county, massachusetts. thomas is a sheriff there and joins us. let me ask the question we asked our other guests first. where do you specifically as sheriff in a southern massachusetts see and feel the impact of illegal immigration, specifically of unaccompanied minors? >> well, we have about 989 unaccompanied minors who arrived in massachusetts and placed in foster care since january 1 through july 31 of this year, and we're seeing the impact in schools throughout our county and the state and, as well,
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we're seeing it in the exploitation of these individuals when criminals are targeting them, knowing that, number one, they don't speak the language and, two, if they're here illegally and earning money somewhere they're probably getting paid cash and they're being exploited and being robbed. >> brown: is that exploitation problem something that you're unable to deal with, i mean to protect them from that? >> well, yeah, it's very difficult because they always want to work under the radar. they don't make themselves known. they don't report it to the police. we don't know just how much more empowered some of these americanized criminals are becoming when they continue to commit more and more crimes ultimately, perhaps against people beyond the illegal immigrant community. >> brown: the young people you are encountering, why do you believe they're coming to the united states and even to massachusetts far from the border? >> well, i don't think there's
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any question why they're coming. it's been verified by the epic report done by the el paso intelligence center, it was leaked out several months ago and what they learned in this report was that in 2012 when the president signed the act for childhood arrivals, there's immediate correlation between that signing of daka and the sudden influx by the thousands of unaccompanied minors coming here and in that report they interviewed 230 individuals who came here illegally. of the 230, 219 said the reason i came here was because i was told i could stay. and we know that the homicides are down in all three of the countries, honduras, el salvador and guatemala. we also know that there was no sudden change in the culture or the atmosphere within those countries. so the surge was directly
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related to the president's new policy. >> brown: well but we've heard from other people in the series about the dire straits a lot of these young people were in, fearing for their lives in their home countries. you simply don't believe they're coming from desperate situations and leave because of that? >> look, these desperate situations you're talking about have not suddenly emerged since 2012. i think if you look at the surge in numbers, it's pretty amazing we've had 37,000 children placed in foster care since january 1 to july 31 of this year. that didn't just suddenly have some change in those countries. they've had problems in those countries for a long time, so to suggest that suddenly we're seeing 90,000 come across, now next year possibly 145,000, that this is some sudden, dramatic shift in the danger within those countries, it's just not so. >> brown: so what do you want to see from the federal government? >> well, a couple of things. number one, we need to change
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the law immediately so that these individuals coming in from honduras, guatemala and el salvador are treated the same way the mexicans are which is there is no right to trial, you get turned around and immediately sent back. there is right now almost a 400,000-case back-load for these unaccompanied children now booked into dockets of 2017. so we need to get the law changed and have them treated the same as any of the mexicans coming across. the the other thing we need to do is we need to do what law enforcement has been asking for for two decades, secure the borders. bring the israelis in, talk to our people, build the sophisticated kinds of systems they have in place. we don't have to reinvent the wheel. secure our borders like law enforcement asked. we have the boots on the ground, we know what the problem is. thirdly, if we're going to deal with the administrative process, we need to make more administrative -- send more administrative judges to the
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border. don't ship people who will have administrative hearings all over the country at the expense of taxpayers. keep them there. get the judges down there and let them do these cases. if you have to do them around the clock like in pennsylvania for regular court cases, do them around the clock. but we need to process these people and get them back if they're entitled to a hearing until the law's changed. >> brown: we've heard from otherrers in this series that we're a relatively wealthy country that this is a situation that requires our compassion. what is your response? >> look, we're about the most compassionate country in the world and i don't disagree we ought to help everyone we can. but, you know, why don't we load up planes from iraq where the people over there are being slaughtered by i.s.i.s. and put them here in if anybody needs refuge from violence we know what's going on. what about our kids in chicago killed, eight or nine a weekend? what are we doing about that? the reality is we can't sustain this. if we talk to parents who have
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had the school programs cut because our governments can't afford it anymore in the schools to have arts program, sports programs. kids can't play in these activities unless parents pay extra money which they just don't have, given the difficulties in our economy. so the idea that somehow we're able to sustain this through medical costs, costs for additional teachers who are going to speak the language, special needs costs -- i mean, it's about $9,000 per unaccompanied child in our schools. so these are the kinds of things that are going to really devastate our country and not give us the opportunities we otherwise have to be compassionate for those we can bring in and do it the right way. >> brown: sheriff thomas hodgeson of bristol county, massachusetts, thank you so much. >> thank you for having me. >> woodruff: you can watch all the conversations from our immigration series on our youtube page where we've complied them all in one
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playlist. >> woodruff: again, the major developments of the day, the leaders of russia and ukraine talked of working out a cease- fire deal, as president obama vowed to protect nato allies against russian aggression. and the president vowed to take the fight to islamic state militants who beheaded journalists steven sotloff and james foley. on the newshour online right now research shows that donating money to a cause makes us happy. just look at the popularity of the a.l.s. ice bucket challenge. yet most americans don't even give away 2% of their income. two notre dame researchers explore this paradox in a new book and you can read an excerpt from that, on our making sense page. all that and more is on our web site, newshour.pbs.org.
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and again, to our honor roll of american service personnel killed in the afghanistan conflict. we add them as their deaths are made official and photographs become available. here, in silence, are two more. >> woodruff: and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you on-line, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us here at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> charles schwab, proud supporter of the pbs "newshour."
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>> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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this is "nightly business report" with tyler mathisen and susie gharib. >> sour apple, one day after hitting an all-time high, apple shares have the worst showing in seven months. and on the same day, rival samsung unveils a pallet of new products. coincidence or not? >> accelerating on pace for the fastest rate since before the financial crisis. >> opening the door. why the rise of choinese buyers will create opportunity in the housing market. that and for for wednesday, september 3rd. good evening, everyone. autos and apple, these were the two big headlines today for investors on wall street and consumers on main street.

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